Glossary »

1 Aberrant Host:

In which worm development is prolonged and/or the rate of development is low but can be complete(Kassai 1999)

2 Aberrant migration:

The migration of larvae of a parasite into sites not typically found in the life cycle. This frequently occurs in accidental hosts

3 Aberrant parasite:

Parasites that, cant be transmitted from human to human and are seen in human unusually(e.g. Multilocular cyst,Angiostrongylos ,Toxocara)

4 Abiotic:

Nonliving ; used primarily for the nonliving parts of ecosystems, or of the environment in general

5 Abnormal Host:

In which only retarded and incomplete development occurs(Kassai 1999)

6 Abundance

Total number of parasite individuals in the Animal population divided by total number of  Animals

7 Acanthella

The developmental stage of an acanthocephalan parasite in which the larva develops definitive organ systems, that occurs between the acanthor and cystacanth stages

8 Acanthocephalans

Thorny headed worms,Spiny headed worms;Members of the Phylum Acanthocephala,elongated worms with an armed ,retractile,oval or cylindrical proboscis,separate sexes ,lacking alimentary tract They also lack Circulatory system

9 Acanthor

The stage of acanthocephalan parasite which hatches from the egg,that in fact its the first larval stage

10 Acaricide:

 Pesticide that destroys ticks and mites. Common examples includes the organophosphorus compounds, the synthetic pyrethroids, and the carbamates

11 Accidental Parasite:

(e.g. Fasciola ,Dypilidium,Trichinella in Human)

12 Acetabulum

(Pleural: Acetabula)A muscular organ of attachment,commonly called a” sucker” ,usually associated with the scolex of cestodes/ Cuplike suckers in cestodes

13 Acraspedote

In Cestodes,when the adjoining anterior and posterior borders of proglottids do not overlap ; Or when Scolex does not overlap its junction with Stobila

14 Acute:

Having severe clinical signs or short course(Noga 2000)

15 ad hoc

For a special purpose, case or situation

16 Ad libitum


17 AFA

Alcohol-Formalin-Acetate,Fixing agent,combination of: Ethanol 70 percent , Formaldehyde , Acetic acid For Cestodes ,sometimes is used for Fixation of samples

18 Ala(Pl. Alae)

Thin cuticular projection or fin,or thickened wings of Cuticle,running longitudinally, usually lateral or sublateral on the body,frequently paired and Narrow or Broad.Cervical,Caudal or Lateral types exist -Cervical Alae confined to anterior end One in e.g. Toxocara canis ,Three in e.g. Physocephalus sexalatus -Caudal Alae: They are seen on the posterior end of only the Male […]

19 Alcohol-Formalin-Acetic acid (AFA)

Please check under : AFA

20 Algicidal:

Lethal to algae(Noga 2000)

21 Allopatric speciation

or geographic speciation is speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated due to geographical changes such as mountain building or social changes such as emigration. Results are called: Allospecies

22 Allotype:

A term, not regulated by the Code, for a designated specimen of opposite sex to the holotype(ICZN)

23 Amman’s lactophenol

Temporary mount medium or for Clearing the worms (400 g carbonic acid, 400 ml lactic acid, 800 ml glycerol, and 400 ml water-store in a dark bottle) Its a toxic material

24 Amphidelphic:

Having two opposed sets of female reproductive organs,one extending anteriorly and the other posteriorly to the vulva(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Dichelyne(Cuculanellus)sciaenidicola(Nematoda:Cucullanidae))

25 Amphids:

Pair of glandular sensory organs situated laterally in the cephalic region and opening through the cuticle(Anderson 1974)

26 Amphipoda

(Meaning: Different-footed)An Order of Crustaceans in the Subphylum of Crustacea, without Carapace Some of them can be the intermediate hosts for parasites e.g. Gammarus pulex; Echinogammarus stammeri (Intermediate host for Polymorphus minutus)

27 Anagenesis

=Gradual evolution, also known as “phyletic change,” is the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event, as in Cladogenesis.(Wikipedia) e.g. Biston betularia (peppered moth): replacement of White moths by Black forms in Britain after industrial revolution (since this change occured within the species, this is anagenesis) Compare with Cladogenesis

28 Anapolysis

In Cestodes,in some of the species, the gravid proglottids are not shed from the Strobila and the eggs are released in another way,in this type of cestodes Pygidium is always the last proglottid in the strobila

29 Anemia

Condition of Blood,having less than the normal number of Red blood cells,or less than the normal quantity of Haemoglobin In Parasitology,some parasites can induce Anemia in their hosts e.g. Nematodes: Haemonchus in Cow and Sheep Trematodes:        Fasciola in Cow and Sheep

30 Annelida

Its a Phylum in Animalia Kingdom, Phylum Annelida comprises Class Clitellata (with clitellum and without parapodia) and Class Polychaeta (with parapodia)

31 Annulations:

Deep, transverse grooves occuring at regular intervals in the cuticle giving the body a segmented appearance(Anderson 1974)

32 Annules:

The intervals or rings of cuticle,between the annulations(Anderson 1974)

33 Anorexia:

Loss of appetite

34 Anoxia:

Total lack of oxygen(Noga 2000)

35 Antemortem:

Before Death

36 Anus:

End Openning of the gastrointestinal canal to out environment,can have various places in Nematodes(Terminal,Subterminal(Streptocara formosensis(Nematoda:Acuariidae))

37 Apical complex:

Polar complex of secretory organells in Sporozoan protozoa            (Leventhal 1989)

38 Apneustic

Having no open spiracles,in some of the insects

39 Apolysis

In Cestodes,Premature detachment of proglottids in some species ;or release of the terminal Gravid progglotid,that after degeneration will release the eggs; Compare with Anapolysis

40 Area Rugosa:

Ornamentation of the cuticle,sometimes present on the ventral surface in front of the cloaca on the coiled part of the posterior extremity of the Male(Anderson 1974)

41 Arrested development:

Prolonged and temporary inhibition or cessation of Nematode larval development in the host at the L3 stage(e.g. Ancylostoma ,Trichostrongylus) or at Early L4 stage(e.g. Haemonchus ,Ostertagia,Cyathostomum,Obeliscoides) or at Immature Adualt stage(e.g. Dictyocaulus)

42 Asexual reproduction

Another way of Reproduction,beside Sexual reproduction In this way there is no need for existence of Two separate sexes e.g. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides corti reproduce by this way

43 Associations:

Connections between two or more animals like: Phoresis,Commensalism,Symbiosis,Mutualism

44 Autochthonous

Originating or formed in the place where found; Indigenous

45 Autoinfection:

Reinfection by a parasite derived from within the host and which is not exposed to the outside environment

46 Axoneme(Rhizoplast):

In flagellates, an internal fibril arising from a blepharoplast and passing through the cytoplasm. An axoneme may leave the body of the flagellate with a small sheath of cytoplasm to become a flagellum or run along the surface of the body lifting the periplast(cell membrane)to form an Undulating membrane

47 Axostyle:

A rod-like structure that gives rigidity to the bodies of some flagellates ,e.g. Trichomonas spp.

48 Azocarmine

A red basic dye

49 Bacillary Band:

A modification of the hypodermis ,consisting of the longitudinal rows of columnar cells that have pore-like opening to the surface of the cuticle,occurring in Trichuroidea (=hypodermal glands of some Authors(Anderson 1974)

50 Bacillary Layer:

A non-vibratile form of ciliary lining of the intestine(Anderson 1974)

51 Ballonets:

Cuticular inflations in the cephalic region assuming a swollen bandshape immediately posterior to the lips(=head bulb of some Authors)(Anderson 1974)

52 Bathypelagic

Of, relating to, or living in the depths of the ocean, especially between about 1,000 and 4,000 meters (3,280 and 13,120 feet).

53 Beechwood creosote

Kind of Creosote resulting from high-temperature treatment of Beech, used as a disinfectant and as a treatment for cough before The major chemicals present in beechwood creosote are phenol, cresols, and guaiacol. Used for Acanthocephalans for Clearing

54 Berlese funnel

A device for extracting Nematodes larvae from soil or litter in which the organisms are forced to move downwards by heat or light until they fall into a vial of preservative. Its also used for extracting Arthropodes from Soil and Litter samples

55 Berlese solution

A Sticky Mounting Medium, In Cestodes ,Its usually used for studing the Scolex of cestodes

56 Binuclear:

A cell having two nuclei

57 Bioremediation

Any process that uses Microorganisms,Fungi ,Green plants,Parasites or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. In Parasitology ,This event naturally done by some parasites inside the hosts e.g. Some Nematodes in Fishes (Ref : Azmat ,R. et al. ,2008),that can be sensitive indicator of heavy metals in Aquatic ecosystems

58 Biramous

Having Two series of Segments For Arthropods,having Two branches,is used for describing the Appendages, e.g. in Crustaceans the Second Antenna is Biramous Compare with Uniramous

59 Bladder

Fluid-filled cavity in metacestodes of some Cestodes e.g. in some Trypanorhyncha, Tetraphyllidea and Cyclophyllidea

60 Blepharoplast:

A small granule-like body,usually appearing  in cytoplasm ,from whcih the axoneme arises/ The basal body origin of Flagella which supports the undulating membrane in Kinetoplastid Flagellates(Leventhal 1989)

61 Blubber

Thick layer of fat that is vascularized (rich in blood vessels) and exists under the skin of sea mammals such as Cetaceans (e.g. Whales), Pinnipeds (e.g. Seals) and Sirenians (e.g. Dugong) which is the primary storage location of fat, acts in thermoregulation and helps in buoyancy

62 Borax-carmine

Sometimes used for Staining of Schistosomes worms

63 Bosses

Small ,round or oval,blister-like inflation of the cuticle(Anderson 1974)eg.Bosses in Gongylonema spp at the Anterior region, Nematodirus Bursa region Desportesius invaginatus Cuticular bosses Loa loa has more modest bosses

64 Bothria

Pleural for Bothrium.Please check under Bothrium

65 Bothridia

Pleural for Bothridium.Please check under Bothridium

66 Bothridium

In Cestodes,In Trypanorhynchs one of the dorsoventrally paired subapical outgrowths of the scolex,ear-like or elongated in shape,  either sessile or pedicellate ,whose musculature is contiguous with the general musculature ,and generally very mobile but rarely capable of a firm grip because of its shallow cavity and lack of suckers or subcompartments

67 Bothrium

In Cestodes,a form of sucker ,that resemples a groove in scolex,they are two longitudinal dorsal and ventral e.g. In Pseudophyllidean ,like in Diphyllobothrium latum

68 Bottle jaw Bottle jaw

or Submandibular oedema,A symptom of some parasitic infections in Ruminants (e.g. Acute Haemonchosis,Ostetagia in cow,Oesophagostomum,Chronic and Subacute Fascioliasis) It is also a sign very typical of Johne’s disease in cattle

69 Bradyzoites:

Slowly multiplying intracellular Trophozoites(e.g. Toxoplasma gondii) ,Form cysts in immune hosts(Leventhal 1989)

70 Bradyzoites:

Slower-growing forms of Toxoplasma gondii that eventually form acid-resistant cysts

71 Brood parasitism

An event in Fishes, Insects and specially Birds, that they lay their eggs in other birds nests, from the same species (e.g. American coots), or different species (Cuckoos)

72 Buccal Capsule:

Anterior enlarged portion of the buccal cavity wiht heavily sclerotized walls(Anderson 1974)

73 Bulb

Poterior part of muscular oesophagus ,generally swollen,containing a valvular apparatus(Anderson 1974) In Acanthocephalans, spherical swelling on Proboscis, called: Proboscis bulb, please check under Proboscis bulb

74 Bursa copulatrix(Copulatory bursa)

Please check under: Copulatory bursa

75 C-TAB:

Its a detergent that helps lyse the cell membrane, however it is pretty poor with denaturing proteins so something with a longer tail is usually used for extraction (WikiAnswers)

76 Cachexia:

General ill health and malnutrition(Noga 2000)

77 Cacodylate

Its a chemicl compund.Sodium Cacodylate is used as a buffering agent in the preparation and fixation of biological samples for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) e.g. for TEM on Cestodes

78 Caecum(Cecum):

A blind diverticulum or pouch from the intestine(Anderson 1974) A sac-like extension of the intestine that is open at only one end,seen in Nematodes and Arthropods

79 Calcareous corpuscles

or Calcareous bodies,Exist in the Parenchyma of  Cestodes , usually in Metacestode stage ,they are composed of different elements like Ca ,Zn,P , Mn ,Ni , …. They may play some roles as Buffers , Reservoirs of inorgnaic ions ,Excretion

80 Canada balsam

Also: Canada turpentine,Balsam of fir,is a turpentine which is made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) For Cestodes specially,for making permanent slides,at the final stage ,after dehydration,the stained worm is placed on the canada balsam, and then the coverslip is placed on them For Digenes, Schistosomes, used for mounting the worms […]

81 Canalis gynaecophorus

A Canal existing in Male Schistosomes

82 Cardia:

Oesophago-intestinal valve(Anderson 1974)

83 Carrier:

A host harboring a parasite but exhibiting no clinical signs or symptoms(Leventhal 1989)

84 Caterpillar

(word meaning almost hairy cat), Larval stage of Insects Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)

85 Cement glands

Type of Secretory glands In Parasites , they exist in Male sex of Acanthocephalans ,close to Testes ,Structure , Number , Form and Arrangement of them is important in Taxonomy They secrete a substance which seals the Genital opening of the Female worm after copulation

86 Centipedes

Arthropodes (Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Chilopoda) ; Unlike Millipedes, centipedes have one pair of legs in each segment of the body,legs are generally longer and tend to stick out along the sides of their bodies.

87 Cephalic papillae:

Head papillae,Outer circle of four head papillae(latero-ventral and latero-dorsal) (Anderson 1974)

88 Cercaria:

The free-swimming larva of a Trematode that usually has a tail(with different shapes) ,results from Sporocyst or Redia(in intermediate Molluscan host) and changes to Metacercaria in the next host

89 Cercomer

The most posterior part of the body in metacestodes, separated from the anterior body part by constriction formed by circular muscle delimiting small cavity containing the orifice(s) of the osmoregulatory system. The cercomer can be tail-like or form additional protective envelopes surrounding the remaining part of the body of the metacestode

90 Cervical:

Applied to structures connected with neck region             (Anderson 1974)

91 Cestodaria

Subclass of Cestodes, They have a 10-hooked Lycophora

92 Cestode:

Tapeworms,A class of worms,Usually having a elongated,ribbonlike ,segmented bodies

93 Cestoidea

True Cestodes, Having 6-hooked Onchosphere

94 Cetacean

An order in the Class Mammalia,cetus in Greek means whale,that includes Whales , Dolphins and Porpoises

95 Cetacean:

Any animal belonging to Order Cetacea.The Order Cetacea belongs to Class Mammalia,Phylum Chordata,Kingdom Animalia,and includes Whales , Dolphines and Porpoises.

96 cf

An abbreviation for the Latin word confer, meaning “compare“. used in writing when you want the reader to make a comparison between the subject being discussed and something else

97 Cheilorhabdion:

Wall of Cheilostom(Anderson 1974)

98 Cheilostom:

First portion of the stoma of a rhabditid-like nematode  (Anderson 1974)

99 Chondrosteans

Primitive ray-finned bony Fishes e.g. Sturgeons that exist naturally in Caspian Sea,Danube River and USA

100 Chronic:

Persists for a long time(Noga 2000)

101 Circomyarian:

A type of muscle cell in which the muscle fibre completely surrounds the sarcoplasm(Anderson 1974)

102 Circumoesophageal:

Encircling the oesophagus(Anderson 1974)

103 Circumoral:

Encircling the mouth (Anderson 1974)

104 Cirrus sac

Part of the male system in Cestodes and Digenes

105 Cirrus-stylet

A structure,from chitin like substance, in Cestodes ,something like the Spicule in Nematodes

106 Cladogenesis

is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a “clade”, an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister organisms .

107 Cladogram

A branching treelike diagram used for illustrating Phylogenetic relationships

108 Clamp

In Monogeneans, sometimes they have Median Sclerites Maybe Simple or Pedunculated

109 Claviform:

Club-shaped(Anderson 1974),specially for Esophagi

110 Cloaca:

The common chamber into which the intestinal and genital canals open(Anderson 1974)

111 Co-extinction

Host specific parasites are known to go extinct with their hosts (Koh, L.P. et al 2004) It seems that local extinction of parasites may actually precedes the extinction of their hosts ( Bush ,S. :China data)

112 Coelomyarian:

Body musculature consisting of of cells of which the internal noncontractile part is well developed and protrudes into the pseudocoelom;The muscle fibers extend to the sides of the muscle cells for varying distances(Anderson 1974)

113 Coenurus:

A larval cystic stage of a tapeworm containing an inner germinal layer producing multiple Scolices within a single cavity(e.g. Multiceps multiceps)

114 Colarette:

An Ornamentation in anterior part(usually Head region) of some  Nematodes(e.g. in Streptocara spp.(Nematoda:Acuariidae),Dichelyne spp. ,Cucullanus spp.(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)

115 Commensalism:

An association of animals in which one uses food supplied in the internal or external environment of a host without affecting the host in any way(Rohde 2001)

116 Congener

An organism belonging to the same taxonomic genus as another organism(,of the same genus

117 Congestion:

Abnormal accumulation of blood in a body part(Noga 2000)

118 Conspecific:

Individual that is in the same species(Noga 2000);Of the same species

119 Copepoda

A large Class in Crustacea,they dont have Compound eyes and mostly only afew mm long.Some species are parasitic,for instance Fish louse for fishes Some of them-like Cyclops-are intermediate hosts for parasites e.g. Cyclops , Calanus

120 Coprophagous

Having the habit of consuming Fecal materials as food e.g. Dung beetles

121 Coprozoic

Living in Fecal matter

122 Copulation

Coitus ; Sexual union between Female and Male sex in  organisms having Two separate Sexes e.g. Nematodes , Acanthocephalans ,Arthropodes

123 Copulatory bursa(Bursa copulatrix):

Modified caudal ala  or alae found in males of some nematodes ,may be circular or oval ,often divided into two symmetrical or asymmetrical lateral lobes, separated by a dorsal lobe and supported by rays or papillae(Anderson 1974) Copulatory bursa also exists in male Acanthocephalans

124 Coracidium

Developmental stage in some Cestodes that is a ciliated hexacanth embryo; e.g. Diphyllobothrium latum eggs develop to this stage and hatch in fresh water

125 Cord(Chord):

Dorsal,ventral or lateral longitudinal thickenings of the Hypodermis(Anderson 1974)

126 Cordon

In Nematodes,Longitudinal, cuticular cord-like thickening extending posteriorly from the mouth and may be straight,recurved or form loops,present mainly in the Spiruroid family Acuaridae(Anderson 1974),their Shape and Size is important in Taxonomy.They can be : Anastomosing e.g. Desportesius spp  Not-anastomosing , Recurrent ,Non-recurrent Or even for a Collarette e.g.  Stegophorus

127 Core species

Species that are common and abundant,usually in a habitat or population

128 Corona Radiata

Or Leaf crown,Crown of bristles, In Nematodes:The border of the labial region divided into a series of leaf-like structures,found in certain Strongyles.There may be two circles of leaf-like structures termed the Internal and External Corona(=Internal and External leaf crowns of some Authors)The number of elements is diferent among different nematodes( 6 in Deletrocephalus dimidiatus to 80  […]

129 Corpus:

Anterior end of the oesophagus often separated from the posterior bulb by the isthmus(Anderson 1974)

130 COX1

Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit 1

131 Craspedote

In Cestodes ,when the posterior border of a proglottid overlaps the anterior border of adjoining proglottid; In Cestodes ,when Scolex overlaps at its junction withthe strobila often forming a Velum

132 Crepuscular

Most active at dawn and dusk

133 Critical Point Drying

Critical Point Drying is an established method of Dehydrating biological tissue prior to examination in the Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). The technique was first introduced commercially for SEM specimen preparation by Polaron in 1970.

134 Curvimeter

or Map measure; is used for measuring length of curve lines on topographical maps, plans and charts. It has metric (in centimeters)or inch dials.Dials are usually in different colors. In Parasitology, in Helminthology, this device is used to measure the size of helminths after drawing with Drawing microscope(camera lucida)

135 Cutaneous:

Pertaining or relating to the Skin

136 Cuticle
137 Cyclops

Small Crustaceans living in the sea and freshwater habitats. Some of them can be the intermediate hosts of parasites like Cestodes ,Nematodes ,.. e.g. Cyclops strenuus is the intermediate host of Dracunculoid Nematode Avioserpens spp containing the 3rd stage larvae of this nematode in its Haemocoel (ref: Moravec ,1990)

138 Cystacanth:

Intermediate stage of acanthocephalans in arthropods

139 Cysticercoid

In Cestodes , a type of larval stage (Metacestode) ,a Lacunate form with a Retracted Scolex

140 Cysticercus

In Cestodes , a type of larval stage (Metacestode) ,a Lacunate form with an Invaginated Scolex

141 Cytostome:

The rudimentary mouth(Leventhal 1989)

142 Definitive(Final)Host:

A host that harbores sexually mature stages of a parasite

143 Deirids(Cervical papillae):

A  pair of sensory organs found laterally in the cervical region and usually protruding above the surface of the cuticle(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Streptocara spp(Deirids have usually various number of teeth in this genus that is important in taxonomy))

144 Dendrogram

(Dendron in Greek means Tree, and -gramma Drawing) A genealogical tree; the trunk represents the oldest common ancestor, and the branches indicate successively more recent divisions of a lineage for a group For showing the arrangements of clusters

145 Dentiform:

With shape resembling Teeth

146 Dentigerous ridges

Having ridges like teeth e.g. In Nematodes, for differentiating some of them, Multicaecum (with) and Brevimulticaecum (without) dentigerous ridges on lips (both from: Nematoda: Heterocheilidae)

147 Deoxynucleoside triphosphate

dNTP,is used in PCR,provides free nucleotides(for DNA) in PCR test,that are the building blocks of new DNA strand

148 Dermatitis:

Inflammation of the skin

149 Diapause

A period of time in which Development and Activity is suspended or arrested and the body is Dormant In Nematodes

150 Didelphic:

With two sets of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Nematodes like : Synhimantus spp , Cosmocephalus spp)

151 Digestive Vacuole

Lysosomal-like organelle in Plasmodium parasites

152 Digitiform

Finger-like, In Cestodes ,Type of Scolex shape , e.g. in Crescentovitus

153 Dioecious

Having Two separate sexes,adults are either Male or Female e.g. Nematodes and Acanthocephalsn are Dioecious In Cestodes,there are afew Dioecious species,e.g. Dioecocestus ,that is found in Birds

154 Diorchic:

With two testes(Anderson 1974)

155 Distilled Water

Its a water that almost all of its Impurities has been taken by the DW Machine by Distillation Distillation includes Boiling the water and then Condencing the Steam as a clean water into a clean Container

156 Distome

For Digenes, having Two suckers, one Anterior Oral Sucker and one Ventral Sucker (but not far in posterior)

157 Diurnal:

Occuring during the daytime

158 Diverticulum:

A tube or sac ,blind at distal end ,branching off from a canal or cavity(Anderson 1974)

159 DMSO

Please check under: Dimethyl sulfoxide

160 dNTP

Please check under: Deoxynucleoside triphosphate

161 Dolphin

A marine mammal,belongs to Order Cetaceans,Family Delphinidae,that includes about 17 genera and 4 species of them live in freshwater

162 Durcupan

An embedding agent For Cestodes,worms are put in durcupan for making ultrathin sections-with Ultratome-for TEM studies

163 DW

Distilled Water,Please check under Distilled Water

164 Dysentery:

Bloody Diarrhea

165 Dyspnea:

Labored or difficult breathing(Noga 2000)

166 Ecdysis

Moulting;Shedding of the Exoskeleton ; The process of casting off the cuticle in the final stage of moulting (Ref. : Wall & Shearer,1997)

167 Ectoparasite

A parasite living on the surface of a host (Rohde 2001) Facultative ectoparasite e.g. Cimex spp. (Bed bugs) Permanent ectoparasites

168 Ectopic

Displaced, In Parasitology,parasite that is in Atypical location within its Host

169 Edema:

Unusual excess fluid in tissue,causing swelling(Leventhal 1989)

170 Elver

Young Eel

171 En face view:
172 en masse

Together ; All together ; In one group or body

173 Endo parasite:

A parasite living inside a host(Rohde 2001)

174 Endogeny:

Way of replication that is used by some parasites like Toxoplasma gondii

175 Engorged

Swollen or Filled. Used specially for Female Ticks filled with host blood

176 Epaulets(Cordons)

Specialized ,ribbon-shaped ,paired bands of cuticle at anterior end(Anderson 1974)

177 Erosion:

A shallow or superficial loss of epithelium;shallower than an Ulcer(Noga 2000)

178 Et cetera

Abbr. etc. ;And other unspecified things of the same class; and so forth;and other things

179 ETS

External Transcribed Spacer,part of genome used for PCR

180 Eugenol

A colorless or yellowish aromatic liquid with spicy odor and taste, soluble in organic solvents, and extracted from clove oil; used in flavors, perfumes, medicines, and the manufacture of vanilla. Its used for clarification of Cestodes too.

181 Euryhaline:

Capable of tolerating a wide range of salinity(Noga 2000)

182 Excretory Pore

Its location is one of the important characters in Morphological identification of Nematodes,Usually at the anterior part of the body e.g. At the level of Oesophagus end, in Dichelyne(Cucullanellus)(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)) Between the Ventrolateral Lips, in Contracaecum rudolphii L4 Larvae

183 Exophthalmos:

Abnormal protrusion of the eye(Noga 2000),its a sign of some diseases

184 Exsheathment

The molting process in Nematodes specially.Shedding the old sheath (cuticle)

185 Externo-labial papillae:

 Median circle of six head papillae(dorso-dorsal,ventro-ventral,ventro-lateral) (Anderson 1974)

186 Facultative:

Not obligatory(Noga 2000)

187 Falcon:

A female hawk(Coles 2007)

188 Fiddle-shaped

Leaf shape, e.g. Lamproglena pulchella is fiddle-shaped

189 Filariform:

Resembling filariae; threadlike;Used for a kind of esophagus of nematodes too

190 Filiform

Resembling a thread  or filament or having the shape of them

191 Final(=definitive)Host:

A host that harbores sexually mature stages of a parasite

192 Fissiped

Having the toes separated from one another, as in the feet of certain carnivorous mammals. e.g. Bear , Dog ,Cat Fissipedia is a Suborder of Carnivora including all land Carnivorous Mammals.

193 Formalin

Formaldehyde solution, Fixing agent ,usually the 10 percent solution is used in Biology Commercially available formalin solution is usually a 37 % or 40 % (weight / volume) solution. Its better to take this full strength solution to the field to reduce volume and to dilute it before use; For diluting the full strength solution […]

194 Fraternoid

For Cestodes Hooks , Hook Handle longer than Gaurd and Blade , Gaurd as long or longer than Blade , thicker than Blade  ( Khalil, L.F. et al. , 1994)

195 Fusiform

Type of shape , Vertically elongate , longer than the width,that tapers toward each End e.g. in Polymorphus spp (Acanthocephala)  Body is Fusiform

196 G-spot

Grafenberg spot,the word was invented by Addiego et al. in 1981 after the german Gynecologist Ernst Grafenberg who hypothesized its existence in a paper published in 1950

197 Gamete:

A mature sex cell(Leventhal 1989)

198 Gangrene:

Death of Tissue(Noga 2000)

199 Gene cloning

Making copies of a single Gene

200 Genital papillae:

Tactile papillae or setae in the anal region of the male which may be preanal,postanal or caudal in position(Anderson 1974)

201 Glycerin

In Parasitology,A good Temporary Mounting Medium, Its used for Clearing the Nematodes and studing them better

202 Glycocalyx

In Cestodes,it exist on the tip of microtriches ,composed of mucopolysaccharide and glycoprotein acidic groups,has absorptive roles

203 Gonochorism

Existence of separate Sexes in two different individuals (having separate Male and Female individuals), opposite of Hermaphroditism, e.g. most of Mammals and Birds are gonochoristic

204 Gonopore

Female reproductive orifice with different shapes important in taxonomy Slit-like in some acanthocephalans like Pomphorhynchus spindletruncatus

205 Graminivorous:

Grass and cereal eating (Coles 2007)

206 Granivorous:

Feeding on grain and seeds (Coles 2007)

207 Gubernaculum:

An accessory male copulatory piece which is formed by sclerotization of the dorsal wall of the spicule pouch,variable in shape but generally with incurved margins(Anderson 1974)(Y-shaped in Dichelyne(Cucullanellus)sciaenidicola,Cucullanus orbignianus(Nematoda:Cucullanidae))(Timi 2006)  In nematodes,A protuberance on the wall of cloaca. It apparently guides the spicule during copulation

208 Haematophagous

Feeder on blood Nematodes,some of them are haematophagous,  e.g. Ancylostoma Trematodes, some of them are haematophagous ,e.g. Fasciola

209 Haematophagy

Habit of feeding blood as the way of nutrition

210 Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining

A usual method of staining in histology, Haematoxylin stains cell nucei blue and Eosin stains cytoplasm, connective tissue and other extracellular substances pink or red.

211 Haemocoel

The Space among the Organs of Organisms with open circulatory systems,it contains different types of cells and also Haemolymph Often functions as a Hydrostatic skeleton e.g. It exist in Most of Arthropodes and Molluscs

212 Haplotype

A set of alleles of closely linked loci on a chromosome that tend to be inherited together; commonly used in reference to the linked genes of the major histocompatibility complex. In some nematodes like Habronema there exist some Haplotypes.

213 Haptor:

Posterior disk of a monogenetic trematode

214 Head papillae:

Tactile sensory organs usally located on the lips or labial region,including two circles of six labial papillae and one circle of four cephalic papillae(Anderson 1974)Cephalic papillae,Externo-labial papillae,Interno-labial papillae

215 Hematochezia (Haematochezia)

Blood in stool, Passing of fresh blood via the anus or occurrence of fresh blood in stool – Can be caused by some of the parasites like Whipworms, Nematodes, Cestodes or Hookworms in Dog and Cat

216 Herbivorous:

An animal that usually eat plants as food

217 Hermaphrodite:

Existence of both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual(e.g. Trematodes,Cestodes)

218 Heterologous:

Derived from a different species(Kassai 1999)

219 Heteroxenous

For Parasites ,Having more than one Obligatory host in the life cycle In Cestodes , e.g.  Raillietina tetragona

220 Hexacanth Embryo:

A tapeworm larva having six hooklets(Leventhal 1989)

221 Hippoboscidae

Louse flies or Keds, they have Winged, Vestigial winged or Wingless types, obligate ectoparasites of Mammals and Birds. e.g. Pseudolynchia canariensis, commonly found on Pigeons and Doves, can be the vector of Pigeon Malaria.

222 Holarctic

Of, relating to, or being the zoogeographic region that includes the northern areas of the earth and is divided into Nearctic and Palearctic regions;including North america,Europe and Northern Asia

223 Holopneustic

Having all the spiracles open,like lots of insects

224 Holoptic

The condition in which there is a narrow gap between the eyes;typical of male Diptera (Wall & Shearer 1997)

225 Holotrichous:

Cilia distributed evenly over the body;usually used for Protozoa

226 Holotype:

The single specimen (except in the case of a hapantotype, q.v.) designated or otherwise fixed as the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies when the nominal taxon is established(ICZN)

227 Hominis:

Related to Man or Human

228 Homologous:

Derived from the same species(Kassai 1999)

229 Hyaluronidase

Its an enzyme with different effects, existing in some insects and Parssites, e.g. Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum For instance in Ascaris suum, it may utilize hyaluronidase to facilitate larval migration within the host.

230 Hyperparasite

A parasite living on or in another parasite, Parasite of parasite ; A Parasite that its host is another parasite , e.g. Plasmodium in Mosquitoes , Cestodes metacestodes in Fleas -Two species of Microsporidians have been reported as Hyperparasites of Acanthocephalans,i.e.  Microsporidium acanthocephali and M. propingui -Microsporidian Unicaryon nomimoscolexi in Cestode Nomimoscolex spp (Ref. : […]

231 Hyperplasia:

Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue,which increases the organs or the tissues volume(Noga 2000)

232 Hypertrophy:

Enlargement of an organ or its part caused by an increase in the size of its cells(Noga 2000)

233 Hyphema:

Hemorrhage in the anterior chamber of the eye(Noga 2000)

234 Hypoxia:

Deficiency of oxygen,such as reduction of oxygen in tissues below physiologically required levels(Noga 2000)

235 Idiopathic:

Occurring without known cause(Noga 2000)

236 Imago

(Pleural: Imagines, Imagos) Adult stage in Insects; Sexually active and if the species is winged, the wings are active in this stage

237 Impact Factor:

The impact factor is a measure of the frequency with which an average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period. The ISI impact factor of a journal for a particular year is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations in ISI SCIE journals to the source items […]

238 In toto:

Entirely;Totally(Noga 2000)

239 In Utero:

In Uterus,Inside the Womb

240 In vitro:

Observable in a test tube or other non-living system(Leventhal 1989)

241 In vivo:

Within the living body(Leventhal 1989)

242 Incertae sedis

Uncertain placement, unknown taxonomy e.g. Glossidium (Digenea)

243 Infrapopulation:

All individuals of a particular parasite species occurring in an individual host(Kassai 1999)

244 Inquirenda:

Species inquirenda(pl. species inquirendae): A Latin term meaning a species of doubtful identity needing further investigation (ref: ICZN)

245 Insectivorous

Using insects as food for nutrition e.g. Meerkat

246 Insular

of or pertaining to an island or islands, e.g. Insular lineages of lizards

247 Intensity

Intensity of infection: Numbers of worms of each species per host

248 Interlabia

(Pleural of Interlabium)Cuticular outgrowths (neoformations)originating at the base of the lips or pseudolabia and extending between them, occurring in some Ascarids and Spirurids(Anderson 1974) e.g. Exist in Contracaecum spp and absent or have strong reduction in Phocascaris Their shape is important in Taxonomy e.g. Contracaecum rudolphii adult stage has  3 Interlabia with characteristic Bifid tip,however […]

249 Internal Transcribed Spacer

ITS,part of genome used for PCR,its a commonly sequenced DNA region in helminths like Nematodes.It has two important types: ITS1 and ITS 2

250 Interno-labial papillae:

Inner circle of six head papillae(Anderson 1974)

251 Intestinal Caecum

An appendage of distal portion of the oesophagus of some nematodes that goes anteriorly and has varying length e.g. Contracaecum spp(Nematoda:Anisakidae), Dichelyne spp(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)

252 Intestinum crassum

Large intestine

253 Intestinum tenue

Small intestine

254 Invaginable

Capable of being rolled in; In Acanthocephalans, it is used for Proboscis In Cestodes, it is used for Rostellum In Snails for Tentacles

255 Isopoda

An Order in the Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Crustacea,Isopodes have 7 pairs of legs of similar size and form,they have biphasic moulting They are usually dorsoventrally flattened Some of them can be the intermediate hosts for Acanthocephalans, e.g. Porcellio scaber (Common rough woodlouse)can be an intermediate host for Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus (Levri, E.P. ; Coppola, B.P. 2004)

256 Isoptera

Order of Insects, including Termites

257 Isthmus:

Middle part of a muscular oesophagus ,often constricted(Anderson 1974)

258 ITS

Please check under:  Internal Transcribed Spacer

259 Kleptoparasitism:

or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees). Kleptoparasitism is also the ‘stealing’ of nest material […]

260 Labia:

Lobes or lips (primitively six)which surround the Mouth(Anderson 1974)

261 Labial Denticulation(Denticles):

Present in Phocascaris (for differentiation:but doesnt exist in Contracaecum)

262 Lactophenol

A solution of Phenol and Lactic acid in Glycerol and Water 

263 Lacunar system

In Parasites , Exist in Acanthocephalans Its made up of Two main channels and Numerous reticular or transverse anastomoses Structure of lacunar system and Position of the main lacunae ( Dorsoventral or Lateral) are important characters in Taxonomy

264 Larva

(Pleural: Larvae)

265 Latent parasitism:

Parasitism without obvious symptoms

266 Latent:

Dormant or Concealed(Noga 2000)

267 Leaf crown

=Corona Radiata,Please check under Corona radiata

268 Leech

Phylum: Annelida , Class: Hirudinea .Sometimes parasitic ,segmented worms with direct life cycle,several groups of them are blood sucking.Some of them can transmit Trypanosomes in Fishes.

269 Lycophore

In Cestodes,Early stage of development of some of them ,  with 10 embryonic hooks,  ciliated and thus adapted for swimming after emergence from the egg e.g. Amphilinidea , Gyrocotylidea

270 Malacophagous

Mollusc-eating habit. e.g. West african Lungfish (Protopterus annectens) (a freshwater fish) is a good malacophagous fish

271 Mallory’s trichrome stain

A kind of staining used to differentiate the granular tissue typical of parasite infections e.g. for studing the tissue reactions around acanthocephalans proboscis

272 Mayer’s carmalum

A staining agent, mixture of Carminic acid, Aluminum potassium sulfate (Potassium alum) and Deionized water.Used usually for staining of helminths like Acanthocephala (10.0 g potassium alum dissolved in 200.0 ml distilled water (heated) plus 1.0 g carmine)

273 Mayer’s acid carmine

Used for staining the Acanthocephalans

274 Mehlis gland

Part of Female reproductive system In Cestodes,Shell gland,Glands surrounding the Ootype where egg shells are formed (Ref. : Khalil et al., 1994)

275 Merocercoid

In Cestodes , a type of larval stage  (Metacestode) , an alacunate form with an Invaginated Scolex

276 Mesal

=Mesial ; Of, in, near, or toward the middle Toward the center or median line

277 Metacercaria

Second stage of Digenetic Trematodes after Cercaria, they are usually found in Fishes

278 Metacestode
279 Metascolex

In Cestodes , The posterior portion of a divided Scolex . Consists of folds of tissue generally encircling or hiding the Suckers . It either originates from the base of  scolex  , sometimes forming a sort of Collar , or from Folds of tissue between the Suckers   (Khalil , al. , 1994) e.g. […]

280 Microthrix

(Pleural: Microtriches)Tiny projections on the tegument,they are unique to Cestodes and appear to be Ubiquitous among cestodes and exist on the Adult forms and earlier life cycle stages. They have a Distal Electron-dense Cap and a Proximal Electron-lucent Base. The boundary between Distal and Proximal portions is usually called Baseplate. They differ in Size (Filitriches , […]

281 Millipedes

Arthropodes (Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Diplopoda) ; Arthropodes that have two pairs of legs per segment (except for the first segment behind the head which does not have any appendages at all, and the next few which only have one pair of legs). Unlike Wireworms ,millipedes have multiple pairs of legs, extending the length of the […]

282 Miracidium

Free-swimming larva of Digenetic Trematodes ,its Ciliated

283 Molt
284 Monodelphic:

With one set of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Desportesius spp)

285 Monoecious

Having both Male and Female Reproductive organs in the same Individual

286 Monogenea

A Class of Parasites, They are usually Ectoparasites on Fishes,with Direct life cycle ,and  mostly Hermaphrodites ,but Gyrodactylids are exceptional and they are Viviparous They are very Host specific , their Infective larva is called Oncomiracidium e.g. Gyrodactylus ,Dactylogyrus , Nitzschia ,Diclybothrium

287 Monopleuroid

In Cestodes,type of Body Plan, i.e. mature stage of worms lacking a cercomer, without internal or external proglottidization and with a Single set of reproductive organs e.g. Caryophyllid cestodes (Order Caryophyllidea)

288 Monorchic:

With one testes(Anderson 1974)

289 Monoxenous

For parasites , Living in only one kind of Host in life cycle ; Having only one Host in the life cycle

290 Monozoic

In Cestodes,for type of Body e.g. Amphilina ,parasitic in Body cavity of Sturgeons

291 Moribund:

In a dying state(Noga 2000)

292 Mouth

The anterior opening of body and the first part of Digestive system -In Nematodes,orientation of Mouth is mainly Terminal but some times: Antero-dorsally: e.g. Ancylostomaoidea and Rictulorioidea(Pterygodermatites(Mesopectines) alphi) Ventrally: e.g. Ichthyocephaloides dasyacanthus

293 mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

294 Mucron
295 Nape

Back of the neck

296 Nearctic

Of or designating the biogeographic region that includes the Arctic and Temperate areas of North America and Greenland

297 Nematodes:

Roundworms;Cylindrical unsegmented body worms with separate sexes and a complete digestice system

298 Nematology

Study of Nematodes

299 Nerve Ring

Concentration of nervous tissue surrounding the Oesophagus(Mutafchiev 2009) In Nematodes,its usually located around the muscular oesophagus and close to the anterior end

300 Niche

Position of an organism or population within an ecological community. The particular area within a habitat occupied by an organism.There are some types for it like: Vacant ,Fumdamental ,Realised …

301 Nidicolous

Animals specially birds that stay at their nest or birthplace for a long time after birth, due to their dependence on the parents for feeding, protection and learning survival skills.e.g. most Mammals, Marsupials and many species of Birds It is the opposite of Nidifugous, where the animal is able to leave the nest very faster after […]

302 NTP

Please check under: Nucleoside triphosphate

303 Nucleoside triphosphate

NTP,is used in PCR,provides free nucleotides(for RNA) in PCR test

304 numen nudum (Pl. nomina nuda)

Its a latin term, meaning naked name. In taxonomy it refers to a designation which is similar to a scientific name of an organism, but it fails to be one as it hasnt been published yet or there is lack of scientific description for it.  

305 Obligate intracellular prasite:

e.g. Toxoplasma gondii

306 Obligatory parasite:

A parasite that can not live apart from its host(Leventhal 1989)

307 Oesophago-intestinal valve(Cardia):

Situated at opening between the oesophagus and intestine(Anderson 1974)

308 Oesophago-intestinal valve(Cardia):

Situated at opening between the oesophagus and intestine(Anderson 1974)

309 Oesophagus

Esophagus;Part of the gastrointestinal system that connects the mouth or buccal cavity to intestine. In Nematodes usually has two parts,means Muscular anterior ,usually shorter,and Glandular posterior part,usually the longer part.  

310 Oesophastome(Pseudobuccal capsule):

At the anterior end of the body(e.g. Cucullanus spp nematodes)(Moravec 1994)

311 Oligohaline:

Refers to slightly brackish water(between ~0.5 to 5 ppt salinity)(Noga 2000)

312 Ommatidium:

A single element of the Compound Eye(Wall 1997)

313 Onchosphere

The motile ,first-stage larva of certain cestodes armed with six hooklets(Leventhal 1989) Size of it and size of Hooks is important in Taxonomy

314 Oncomiracidium

Infective larva of Monogeneans , Its ciliated and can swim freely

315 Oocapt

=Ovicapt ; Please check under Ovicapt

316 Ootype

An expansion of the oviduct surrounded by Mehlis` gland ,where egg shells are formed. In Cestodes,Vitelloduct , Seminal receptacle duct and Ovarian duct all are connected to it

317 Operculum:

The bony covering of the gill(Noga 2000)

318 Opisthodelphic

Uteri parallel directed posteriod(Anderson 1974)

319 Orthoptera

An Order of Insects with incomplete Metamorphosis , including: Grasshoppers , Crickets and Locusts

320 Ovary

Main reproductive organ in Female sex,that is connected to a uterus; It can have different Shapes, Structure that sometimes has Taxonomic importance -In Nematodes,there is one or two Tubular ovaries,rarely more,like: Four : e.g. Polydelphis Six  : e.g. Hexametra Thirty two : e.g. Placentonema gigantissima -In Cestodes,sometimes Multilobate, e.g. in Amphilina japonica (ovary has Ovarian […]

321 Ovejector(Ovijector):

Part of the female genital system between the end of the uterus and the vulva,modified to aid in the expulsion of the eggs(Anderson 1974)

322 Ovicapt

=Oocapt ; In Cestodes ,Sphincter controlling entry of Ova from Ovary into the Oviduct    (Ref. : Khalil et al., 1994) ; Its the junction between Ovary and Oviduct in fact It seems it prevents the Immature oocytes from passing into the Oviduct and allows through only mature oocytes.

323 Ovicide:

A substance destructive to the ova of certain organisms, usually helminths and arthropods

324 Oviparous:

An organism that lays  eggs(Woo 2006)

325 Ovipositor

The organ used for laying eggs(Wall 1997) In Nematodes, in Female sex

326 Ovum

(Pleural : Ova) Mature gamete in Female that isnt Fertilized yet

327 Oxyuroid(Bulboid)oesophagus:

Cylindrical anteriorly oesophagus,  terminating in a basal bulb(Anderson 1974)

328 PAIR

Abbreviation for: Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration; a method used for treating Hydatid cysts in human that needs an open surgery.

329 Palaearctic

Of or relating to the biogeographic region that includes Europe, the northwest coast of Africa, and Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, especially with respect to distribution of animals;compare Nearctic

330 Palps(si. Palp):

Paired segmented organs associated with the Maxilla (Maxillary Palps)and Labium(Labial Palps)(Wall 1997)

331 Papillae

Swellings in different shapes In Nematodes,classified as different categories e.g. Post-anal (Post-cloacal,Pre-anal(Pre-cloacal),that number of them is used in taxonomy.Maybe pedunculate or not

332 Paratenic Host:

A transport host in which the larval stage of  a parasite undergoes no development and its only function is to transfer the parasite to the next host(Woo 2006)

333 Paratype:

Each specimen of a type series other than the holotype(ICZN)

334 Parthenogenesis:

Development from an unfertilized egg(Wall 1997) Some parasites use this type of Reproduction e.g. Strongyloides (Nematode)in parasitic life cycle

335 Paruterine organ

A fibrous or granular appendage to the uterus that usually receives the eggs and retain them in a common capsule with protective and(or) propagative functions

336 Pathogenicity:

The ability to produce pathogenic changes(Leventhal 1989)

337 Pathognomonic:

Specifically distinctive or characteristic of a disease or pathogenic condition(Noga 2000)

338 Pb

Abbreviation for Latin word: Plumbum. Lead

339 PBS(Phosphate Buffer Saline):

Its main function is to maintain the PH of a solution(Himanshu Goel),used in the first step of DNA extraction for washing the nematodes for instance

340 PCR

Please Check Under: Polymerase Chain Reaction

341 Pedicellate

Having pedicel.Pedicel is a stalk like support In Cestodes,some of them have Pedicellate Bothridia

342 Pedunculated papillae:

Modified ,stalked ,genital papillae in anal region of male(Anderson 1974)

343 Pelagic

Of, relating to, or living in open oceans or seas rather than waters adjacent to land or inland waters e.g.  Pelagic birds

344 Penis

(Pleural: Penises ,Penes)External sexual organ of certain Male organisms that is used for Copulation and Urination both or only for Copulation

345 Per annum

By the year;Annually

346 Per anum

Through or by way of the anus,e.g. for administration of medications

347 Per capita

Per person; Equally to each individual

348 Per diem

Per day; By the day; For each day

349 per os

(Abbreviation : P.O.)By Mouth,by the way of Mouth e.g. For experiments on drugs, this method is used sometimes for giving the drug

350 Peracute:

Very acute(Noga 2000)

351 Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS)

Used for Staining of Schistosomes worms

352 Peritonitis:

Inflammation of the peritoneum(Noga 2000)

353 Petechia:

A minute red spot caused by escape of a small amount of blood(Noga 2000)

354 PH(Potential of hydrogen):

A measure of (an index for) the acidity or alkalinity of a solution,commonly ir ranges from 0 to 14

355 Pharynx:

Narrow ,posterior part of the buccal cavity with thick sclerotized walls(Anderson 1974)

356 Phasmids:

Pair of glandular sensory organs situated laterally in the caudal region and opening to the surface by a slit or pore(Anderson 1974)

357 Phoresis(Phoresy):

An association in which one organism uses another as a means of transport and/or protection(Rohde 2001)

358 Pinnipeds:

Fin-footed mammals including Walrus , Eared seals ,Fur seals ,Seal lions ,Earless seals (true seals or crawling seals which one of them exists in Caspian sea,called Caspian seal ,Pusa caspica)

359 Piscicide

Capable of killing fishes; Usually a chemical substance that is poisonous to fishes and can kill them.One use for them is to eliminate a dominant or invasive species of fish in a water body, e.g. Rotenone, Saponins, TFN, Niclosamide, Fintrol There are also some plants with such character like: The Tephrosia, Wikstroemia and Bariringtonia genuses are well-known […]

360 Piscivorous:

Having the habit for eating fish as usual food,Fish eating animal,Usually for Birds

361 Plaques:

Cuticular  “warts”  (Anderson 1974)

362 Platymyarian:

Body musculature consisting of cells not protruding individually into Pseudocoelom(Anderson 1974)

363 Plectanes:

Cross striated  cuticular plates functioning as supports for the genital papillae in some males(Anderson 1974)

364 Plerocercoid

In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form with an Everted Scolex (Chervy ,2002)

365 Plerocercus

In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form with a Retracted Scolex (Chervy ,2002) A peculiar larval stage of Dilepidid (Cyclophyllidea) cestodes

366 Plumbum

Latin word for Lead.Abbreviation is: Pb Chemical element

367 Polydelphic:

With more than two sets of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)

368 Polygyny

Kind of relationship, in human and animals like birds for instance, where male can mate with more than one female, while female can mate with only one male. e.g. Males of Australiann brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami) are polygynous

369 Polymerase Chain Reaction

Its a standard procedure that can amplify a small amount of template DNA (or RNA) into large quantities in a few hours. It has several basic components,namely:DNA , Taq polymerase  , Primers ,  Free nucleotides (dNTPs for DNA , NTPs for RNA) ,DMSO , Buffer , MgCl2

370 Polyzoic

In Cestodes,condition of body in which the body is formed of Two or more Proglottids Most of the cestodes are polyzoic

371 Postmortem:

After death(Noga 2000)

372 Preanal sucker:

Ventral,pre-cloacal structure ,sucker-like in form (Anderson 1974)

373 Precloacal Sucker

Sucker anterior to Cloac e.g. Cucullanus spp (precloacal sucker without sclerotized rim)

374 Predilection Site:

Preferred site within the host which is characteristic for a parasite species (e.g. particular groups of skeletal musculature for larvae of Trichinella)(Kassai 1999)

375 Prepatent:

Period before being evident(Noga 2000)

376 Prevalence

Number of infected animals divided by the number of all animals examined for parasites

377 Proboscis bulb

In Acanthocephalans, swelling on the proboscis of some Genera

378 Proboscis:

Elongated, Flexible organ in Acanthocepales/ A muscular ,protrusible feeding organ in Rhynchobdellid Leeches(Woo 2006) Also an organ In certain Arthropods(Argulus)

379 Procercoid

In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form which can not develop further untill ingested by a second intermediate host,its without scolex ,usually caudate (Chervy ,2002) e.g.

380 Procercoid:

The first larval stage of many Cestodes which develop inside the body cavity of the invertebrate (First)intermediate host(Woo 2006)

381 Prodelphic

Uteri parallel directed anteriod(Anderson 1974)

382 Proglottis

(Pleural: Proglottids)Each of the bead-like parts of cestodes body resembling each other

383 Proglottization

(Syn. Strobilation)The process of proglottis formation in Cestodes

384 Pronotal comb:

Conspicuous spines seen on the pronotum of some fleas

385 Protandry

Development of Male organe before Female organs, for avoiding Self- fertilization e.g. In Cestodes ,Monogeneans

386 Proteinase K

(also Protease K)Its an enzyme that digests protein and removes contamination from preparations of Nucleic acid, used for DNA extraction, it was discovered in 1974, its able to digest native Keratin(hair), so the name Proteinase K Its produced by the Fungus Engyodontium album ( Tritirachium album )

387 Protonephridia

Ciliated excretory tubes that are specialized for Filtration and are part of Excretory system In Acanthocephala ,some of them have Protonephridia

388 Protostom:

Second part of the stoma of a rhabditid-like nematode(Anderson 1974)

389 Protuberance

Some froms of projections  on the cuticle,with unknown function,sometimes referred as Excrescences. e.g. Cone-shaped protuberances of Nilonema gymmarchi(Dracunculoidea)

390 Pruritus:

Intense itching

391 Pseudo-

A Prefix,  False or Not a real Structure but somewhat similar to it e.g. Pseudocolelum ,Pseudobalb

392 Pseudobalb:

Muscular swelling of the oesophagus without valvular arrangement(Anderson 1974)

393 Pseudobuccal capsule(Oesophastome):

An structure at the anterior end of the body(e.g. Cucullanus spp,Dichelyne spp(Nematoda:Cucullanidae))(Moravec 1994)

394 Pseudocoelum

-In Nematodes,Its the space posterior to the Nerve ring,between the somatic muscles and the digestive tract.This space is fluid-filled which coats the Digestive tract and the Reproductive organs are suspended in it. Pseudocoelum contains some cells named Coelomocytes,that are large Amoeboid cells with various number ,size and shape. -Secretory or Phagocytic functions are  suggested for them. […]

395 Pseudocyst:

A cyst-like structure formed by the host during an acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii.The cyst is filled with Tachyzoites in normal hosts;may occur in Brain or other tissues.Latent source of infection which may become active if Immunosuppression occurs(Leventhal 1989)

396 Pseudogamy

Its also called sperm-dependent parthenogenesis or gynogenesis. It is a special type of asexual reproduction in which females use the sperm of males, usually from another species, to activate their oocytes.

397 Pseudogene

A defective segment of DNA that resembles a gene but cannot be transcribed. Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes or Numts: Nuclear sequences exhibiting a high degree of similarity with mtDNA sequences, exist in Mammals , Birds , Acanthocephalus lucii

398 Pseudolabia(Probolae)

 Or False lips, In Nematodes,Cuticular outgrowths(neoformations)arising around the oral opening and which,during development, overlie and then replace the primitive lips.The anterior extremity of numerous Spirurida has two lateral pseudolabia(=probolae of some authors)(Anderson 1974)

399 Pseudomyiasis

Deposition of Maggots- Fly larvae-on uncovered faeces immediately after they are passed; Rectal pseudomyiasis can be caused by Eristalis tenax in human

400 Pseudoparasitism

e.g. Appearance of the eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum in human stools, that isnt due to the infection but eating the undercooked infected liver

401 Pseudopod:

A protoplasmic extension of Trophozoites of Amoebae that allows them to move and to engulf food(Leventhal 1989)

402 Pseudoscolex

Exists in some Cestodes e.g. in Paraechinophallus japonicus (Yamaguti, 1934) (Cestoda, Bothriocephalidea, Echinophallidae)

403 Pseudosegmentation

Type of external Segmentation that is False and does not correspond to Internal Segmentation In Cestodes ,e.g. in Ligulinae subfamily (Ligula , Digramma)

404 Pseudosucker

(Lappet) In Digenes, in some members of the family Diplostomidae, e.g. Diplostomum, Tylodelphys, in anterior part of body

405 Pulicide:

An insecticide used for Flea control

406 Pygidium

In Cestodes, The first proglottid formed and last or oldest on the Strobila; this proglottid contains the excretory pore

407 Pyriform

Type of Shape , Like a Pear Some parasites have Pyriform bodies

408 Pyriform apparatus

In Cestodes,in Anoplocephalids,modification of the Embryophore assuming the shape of a pear, probably with protective and propagative functions

409 Rays:

Genital papillae and their accompanying muscles embedded in the bursa of some males(Anderson 1974)

410 rDNA

Ribosomal DNA

411 Retracted

In Cestodes, for condition of scolex of Metacestode, being withdrawn within the body of the metacestode (in a cyst) such that it keeps its definitive configuration (i.e., the scolex itself is not invaginated). After reaching the definitive host, a metacestode with retracted scolex is excysted

412 Rhabditoid(Rhabditiform)oesophagus:

Oesophagus consisting of two swellings,one forming the end of the corpus ,the other posteriorly forming the bulb.The region between the corpus and the bulb is known as the isthmus(Anderson 1974)

413 Rib
414 Ridges

Raised cuticular areas which run the length of the body,very pronounced in some Trichostrongyloids nematodes (Anderson 1974) With different shapes, sometimes Longitudinal

415 Rookery

Colony of breeding animals(Birds, Mammals, Turtles); e.g. nesting place of Birds

416 Rosettes:

Punctuations patterns of cuticle surrounding genital papillae (Anderson 1974)

417 Rugae

(Pl.)Also referred to as Transverse ridges, have the appearance of wrinkled folds of Cuticle or raised annulations ,interrupted in the lateral fields and form incomplete rings around the body e.g. Onchocerca (Filarioidea) female

418 Saefftigen’s pouch

An elongated pouch inside the genital sheath in many acanthocephalans

419 Sanguiniferous:

Blood feeders(Woo 2006)

420 Saprophagous:

Feeding on decaying organisms(Wall 1997)

421 Scape:

The first segment of the Antenna of Insects(Wall 1997)

422 Scolex

In Cestodes ,The anterior end that is often modified for attachment or locomotion.It has a Rostellum at the apex that can have variable shapes with or without hooks. In Trypanorhynchs it is complex and usually possesses 4 armed Tentacles projecting from the apex.

423 Scutum:

The sclerotized plate on the dorsal surface of Ixodid hard Ticks,also known as the Dorsal plate(Wall 1997)

424 Sedentary

Ornithology, Remaining or Living in one area, Not migratory

425 SEM

Scanning Electron Microscopy;A method used in helminthology,specially for studing Nematodes

426 Semichon’s carmine

Its a good general Stain, used for Staining the Cestodes Semichon’s Acetic-carmine: 100 ml glacial acetic acid 100 ml distilled water Carmine in excess – about 1.5 gm Mix water and acetic acid. Add carmine to the amount which will go into solution. Heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes and allow to […]

427 Seminal receptacle

=Receptaculum seminis,Storage reservoir for spermatozoa in Female worms In Cestodes In Nematodes,it can be present as a small swelling of each Uterus ,or the ovarial end of the uterus may do this function

428 Seminal vesicle

An organ that stores sperm In Nematodes,it exists in Male worms In Cestodes , in some of them has two parts of Internal seminal vesicle and External seminal vesicle,that existence of one or both parts and their size (length and width)is important in taxonomy

429 Sensu lato( or s.l.):

A Latin term meaning “in the wide sense”(ref: ICZN)

430 Sensu strictu(s. str. or s.s.):

A Latin term meaning “in the strict sense”. Often used in conjunction with a name when referring to the nominal taxon in the narrow sense of its subordinate nominotypical taxon(ref: ICZN)

431 Sensu:

A Latin term meaning “in the sense of”. Often used to refer to the usage of a name by a (cited) author in a sense different from that of the original author or some other previous author(ref: ICZN)

432 Sessile

Without any Stalk,Attached directly at the base, Like the eyes in some Crustaceans In Nematodes,Used for Papillae(e.g. tail papillae in some Nematodes,e.g. Cosmocephalus podicipis) In Cestodes,it is used for a Bothridium that is stalkless

433 Simuliidae:

A family of Nematocerous Diptera ,including the genus Simulium,known as Blackflies(Wall 1997)

434 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, pronounced snip) is a DNA sequnce variation occurring when a single nucleotide —A, T,C or G  — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual).

435 Skryabinoid

For Cestodes Hooks,Hook Handle and Blade well developed ,one shorter or longer than the other Gaurd rudimentary Ventral Concavity between proximal part of Handle and Gaurd

436 SNP

Please check under:  Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism

437 Sparganosis:

Pleurocercoid in human tissue from accidental infection with Procercoid(Leventhal 1989)

438 Sparganum

A Plerocercoid whose identity is Unknown

439 Spatulate

Anything like a Spatula,means Flat , Expanded and Round apex In Cestodes, Type of Scolex shape , e.g. in Lytocestus

440 Species inquirenda

 (Pl. Species inquirendae)A latin term meaning a species of doubtful identity needing further investigation  (ICZN) 

441 Speciose

Rich in number of species

442 Sperm whales

Sperm whale family (sperm whales)belonging to Class Mammalia including two Families of Physeteridae (Physeter :  Sperm whale) and Kogidae ( Koga sima : Dwarf sperm whale , Koga breviceps : Pygmy sperm whale)

443 Spermatophore

Packet of Sperm that is usually transferred from one individual to another during Copulation

444 Spicule:

Sclerotized ,accessory copulatory organ of male nematodes ,usually paired but sometimes single(Anderson 1974)although some nematodes spp male sex doesn’t have any spicule(eg. Trichinella spp)

445 Spines

Projections on the cuticle with various Forms , Sizes , Rows(one,two or numerous) , Numbers, Locations Restricted only to Cephalic region: e.g. Carnoya fimbriata Tip of the Femail Tail:  Ancylostoma duodenale Arranged in numerous rows: e.g. Podocnematractis colombiaensis Existing in different regions of the body:  e.g. Buckleyatractis marinkelli The points of spines may be Simple ,large […]

446 Sporogony

A phase in the development of an Apicomplexa in which the zygote initiates asexual reproduction and results in production of infective Sporozoites(Woo 2006)

447 Sporozoite:

A nucleated infective stage formed by division of the Sporont(Woo 2006)

448 Spurr medium

Embedding medium used for embedding the tissues before Sectioning for TEM studies.A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy.

449 Squamata

Scaled reptiles ; An order of Class Reptilia ,including Snakes and Lizards

450 Stenohaline:

Unable to withstand a wide variation in salinity(Noga 2000)

451 Stenoxenous

A parasite with narrow host range (e.g. Eimeria in coccidia group, Hookworms, Sucking and chewing lice…)

452 Stereomicroscope

Also called Dissecting microscope, a relatively Low power microscope,it can have a single fixed Magnification , several discrete magnifications or a Zoom magnification system In Parasitology ,Specially for checking tickes , or checking the intestinal contents for small helminths

453 Stichocyte:

Glandular oesophageal cell not incorporated into oesophageal tissue(Anderson 1974),in nematodes(exist in  Trichinella spp)

454 Stichosome:

Collection of stichocytes arranged in a longitudinal row(Anderson 1974)in nematodes

455 Striations

Fine transverse grooves occuring at regular intervals(Anderson 1974) In Nematodes specially.e.g. Dentostomella (Oxyuroidea)

456 Strobila

In Cestodes, The region of the worm posterior to the scolex ,or the body of the worm, that includes the proglottids

457 Strobilation

(Syn.  Proglottization)The process of proglottis formation in Cestodes

458 Strongyloid (Filariform)oesophagus:

Slender ,cylindrical ,without bulb oesophagus(Anderson 1974)

459 Subspecies(sing. and pl.):

(1) The species-group rank below species; the lowest rank at which names are regulated by the Code. (2) A taxon at the rank of subspecies(ref: ICZN)

460 Supernatant

Floating on the surface. Clear fluid above the sediments or precipitates (usually after centrifugation)

461 Supplements:

In Male,ventromedian papillae anterior to Cloaca, as well as an adanal pair of Papillae in some Nematodes(Anderson 1974)

462 Symbiosis(Sensu lato):

Any association between organisms(Parasitism,Commensalism,Mutualism,Phoresis) (Rohde 2001)

463 Symbiosis(Sensu strictu):

An association of organisms in which both partners benefit from the association and cannot live without each other(Rohde 2001)

464 Sympatric

Of populations of two or more species ,whose geographical ranges or distributions coincide or overlap

465 Synapomorphy

(or synapomorphic character) In cladistics its a trait that is shared by two or more taxa. e.g. For Cestodes, Proximodistal fusion (in Spermatogenesis) has been recognized as a synapomorphy for the Cercomeridea. (Miquel et al., 2005)

466 Syncytial

Type of tissue having Syncytium structure e.g. Acanthocephalans body integument

467 Syncytium

Cellular structure formed by fusion of cell bodies but with retention of separate nuclei; so there are many nuclei but no cells boundaries

468 Syngamy:

A method of reproduction in which two individuals (gametes) unite permanently and their nuclei fuse; sexual reproduction. A common form of reproduction in protozoa

469 Synlophe:

The ensemble of enlarged longitudinal or oblique cuticular ridges which serve to hold the Nematodes in place on the gut wall,found in numerous Trichostrongylids(Anderson 1974)

470 Synonym

In zoological nomenclature , synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon , for example two names for the same species. The first name to be published is the Senior synonym; any others are Junior synonyms .

471 Syntype

Each specimen of a type series from which neither a holotype nor a lectotype has been designated. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type. (ICZN)

472 Syrinx

Avian voice box, has the role in making the sounds in birds Has three Types (based on its location relative to Trachea): Syrinx Trachealis, Syrinx Bronchialis and Syrinx Tracheobronchialis

473 Tabanidae:

A family of Diptera,including the Horse flies,Deer flies and Keds(Wall 1997)

474 Tachyzoites:

Fast-growing life stages of Toxoplasma gondii,that are converted to Bradyzoites(e.g. under various stresses in vitro)

475 Tandem

Type of Arrangement , Tow or more objects or organs that are placed one behind the other In Parasites , specially used for the arrangement of Testes in Acanthocephalans , Cestodes or Trematodes ,can be usable in Taxonomy e.g.

476 Tap water

Is usually used in the Relaxaion stage of identification for helminths, which the helminth is placed in for a short time, during this period the worm is relaxed and for instance in Acanthocephala in a good relaxation process the proboscis will be everted

477 Taq polymerase

It is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus  from which it was originally isolated byThomas D. Brock in 1965.Its used in PCR.

478 Taxonomy:

The theory and practice of classifying organisms(ref: ICZN)

479 TBE

Please check under: Tris/borate/EDTA buffer.

480 Teeth:

Structures in Nematodes mouth(e.g. Ancylostoma spp),number of them is important in Taxonomy/Structures resembling to teeth in shape for instance on the Collarettes(e.g. in Streptocara spp)or on the Deirids(e.g. in Streptocara spp)

481 Tegument(Integument):

The absorptive body surface of Platyhelminths(Leventhal 1989)

482 Telamon:

Slightly sclerotized ,immovable formation of complicated shape in the ventral and lateral cloacal walls that also aid in directing the spicules during copulation (Anderson 1974)

483 Teleosts

Higher bony Fishes

484 Telostom:

Posterior part of the stoma of a rhabditid-like nematode(Anderson 1974)

485 TEM

Transmission Electron Microscopy ;A method used in helminthology, specially for studing Cestodes In Cestodes is used commonly for studing Spermiogenesis

486 Terpineol

It is a naturally occurring Monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as Cajupurt oil, Pine oil and Petitgrain oil. It has a pleasant odor . It is used for Clearing Acanthocephalans in the way of identification  

487 Testis

(Pleural : Testes)Main reproductive organ in Male sex Number and Position-Arrangement(Anterior ,Posterior or Middle of body ; Tandem , Side by side) of them is important in Taxonomy e.g. Two ,Side by side in Polymorphus spp

488 Theront:

The infective stage of certain parasitic protozoa(e.g. Ichthyophthirius)(Noga 2000)

489 Tholate

Dome-like, In Cestodes,its a type of Scolex, e.g. Hunterella spp ,that occurs in Freshwater Fishes of Catostomidae Family

490 Tomont:

The dividing stage of certain parasitic protozoa(e.g. Ichthyophthirius)(Noga 2000)

491 Topotype:

A term, not regulated by the Code, for a specimen originating from the type locality of the species or subspecies to which it is thought to belong, whether or not the specimen is part of the type series(ref: ICZN)

492 Torso

Trunk, That includes the Thorax and Abdomen

493 Transport host:

A host that harbors sexually immature stages of a parasite that do not develop ;Vector,Often a blood-sucking insect(Leventhal 1989)

494 Trapezoid

A Quadrilateral shape with Two sides parallel e.g. Contracaecum rudolphii L4 larvae have Trapezoid lips (Ref. : Kanarek, G., Bohdanowicz, J. ,2009)

495 Trematodes:

Flukes;Flattened ,nonsegmented worms with relatively simple digestive system , all hermaphroditic except the blood flukes(Schistosomatidae)

496 Trichuroid oesophagus:

Narrow muscular tube with associated glandular stichosome made up of stichocytes(Anderson 1974)

497 Trident

Sclerotized denticles behind the buccal capsule in certain Nematodes e.g. in Camallanus spp

498 Tris

One of the most common buffers used in Biochemistry and Biology labs. Its used to buffer solutions from drastic pH changes

499 Trophont:

The attached ,fish-feeding stage of certain parasitic protozoa (e.g. Ichthyophthirius, Amyloodinium)(Noga 2000)

500 Trophososme:

Reserve organ formed by the transformation of the Digestive canal,often appears to be Syncytial(Anderson 1974)

501 Trophozoite:

The motile stage of a protozoan which feeds,multiplies ,and maintains the colony within the host(Leventhal 1989)

502 Trypanoplasma

A genus of flagellate protozoa (Zoomastigophorea,Kinetoplastida,Family: Cryptobiidae)with an undulating membrane,elongate kinetoplast that occurs as a parasite in the blood of Fishes and leeches act as vectors of some of the species,species including: T. borreli ,T. beckeri (vector:leech, Malmiana diminuta),T. bullocki (vector: leech, Calliobdella vivida),

503 Trypanorhynch cestodes

Cestodes characterised by having a scolex with four eversible Tentacles armed with hooks, two or four Bothridia, and sometimes Ciliated pits and Prebulbular organs Adult forms of them exist in the digestive tract of final hosts (Elasmobranchs: Sharks and Rays) First intermediate hosts: Invertebrates Second intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts: Teleost fishes and some invertebrates

504 Type species

The species that best exemplifies the essential characteristics of the genus to which it belongs e.g. Eustrongylides tubifex (Nitzsch, 1819) is the Type species of Genus Eustongylides

505 Unequal:

Different in size(e.g. Spicules are usually unequal in Desportesius spp nematodes),level,amount,etc(Cambridge Dictionary)

506 Uniramous

A single series of segments ,attached end-to-end For Arthropods,having one branch,is used for describing the Appendages, e.g. Legs of Insects and Myriapods are Uniramous         In Crustaceans the first Antenna is Uniramous compare with Biramous

507 Univoltine:

Producing only one generation per year,e.g.  Cephalopina titillator (Camel nasal botfly) is univoltine in Asian localities in Camels(Camelus dromedarius)

508 Uteri

Pleural of uterus;More than one uterus

509 Uterine capsule

In Cestodes ,envelope surrounding single egg and situated externally to outer shell or aggregation of eggs and its origin is from uterine wall, either in gravid uterus or in environment

510 Uterus

The Organ in Reproductive system of Female sex that keeps the Zygote and matures the Ova and eggs till full maturation.It has several shapes In Nematodes ,

511 Vagina

In Nematodes,Outer chamber of the Female genitalia,sometimes develops into an elongated muscular tube lined by cuticle and called the Vagina vera In Cestodes,its like a tube with two parts,Vagina copularory and Vagina conductive

512 Velum

In Cestodes ,Thin overlapping membrane-like portion of a Bothridia Posterior part of a proglottid at both lateral sides, overlapping subsequent proglottid

513 Ventral Sucker

An structure that exist at posterior part of some Nematodes(e.g. Dichelyne spp(Ventral Precloacal Sucker),Cucullanus spp)(Alacros 2006)

514 Ventriculus(Ventricular appendage)

Glandular modification of the distal portion of the oesophagus of some nematodes,may have a solid appendage of varying length extending posteriorly dorsal to the intestine(Ventricular appendix)(Anderson 1974) e.g. Contracaecum spp

515 Vestibule:

Structure behind the mouth of some nematodes(e.g. Streptocara spp)

516 Vestige

A visible Trace ,Evidence or Sign of something that was existed before but now doesnt exist or appear e.g. Penes vestige in Females

517 Vicariants

Two or more closely related taxa, presumably derived from one another or from a common immediate ancestor, that inhabit geographically distinct areas,for instance for two different Cestodes

518 Vitellaria:

Yolk glands(Woo 2006)

519 Viviparous:

Bearing of live young(Woo 2006)

520 Voucher specimen

Specimen giving proof for some statement/decision(Mutafchiev 2009)/a proof specimen retained as a reference

521 Vulva

Vaginal opening In Nematodes, its located on the ventral surface of body,Its position can be anywhere along the length of the body, position and shape of it is important in Taxonomy -Near the Anterior end : Serratospiculum seurati -At the end of a Vulvar flap: Haemonchus similis -Near the posterior end: Oesophagostomum columbianum (Metastrongyloidea) -Terminal: […]

522 Warble:

Swelling in skin caused by infection with larvae of Flies causing furuncular Myiasis(Wall 1997)

523 Wax layer:

The lipid or waxy layer outside the epicuticle of some Arthropods(Wall 1997)

524 Wireworms

Click beetles (Class: Insecta, Family: Elateridae) Larvae; They only have three pairs of legs, all located on the thorax

525 Xenodiagnosis:

Infections with Trypanosoma cruzi may be diagnosed by allowing an uninfected Triatoma bug to feed on the patient(the bite is painless),the insects feces are later examined for parasites(Trypanosome forms)(Leventhal 1989)

526 Xylene

Used for Clearing the helminths before mounting, e.g. Acanthocephala

527 Yellow Grubs

Bumps or swellings that are usually seen on the body surface and are caused by some parasites e.g. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae can cause yellow grubs in fishes

528 Zoonosis:

A disease on animals that may be communicated to Humans(Wall 1997)

529 Zooplankton:

Animal-like organisms which float or drift almost passively at sea or in other large water bodies(Woo 2006)

530 Zygote

The Fertilized cell(Diploid ) resulting from the union of male gamete(Spermatozoa) and female gamete(Ovum)